Heavy equipment has a higher effectiveness and efficiency factor compared to manual work.
This heavy equipment cannot simply be distributed to the field because they require other heavy equipment to function as a means of transportation.
Dump Truck Uses
Dump Truck is a truck used to move material over medium to long distances (500 meters or more). More specifically, dump trucks or “trippers” are trucks that are used to transport materials (gravel, sand and various types of soil), as well as to transport heavy equipment for construction work.
Most dump trucks are equipped with hydraulic cylinders located at the front or under the body of the dump truck, these hydraulic cylinders are used to lift the body of the dump truck and tilt the loader bucket sideways or back. Most hydraulic pumps are controlled by a PTO gearbox.
History of Dump Truck
The dump truck is a truck used to move material over medium to long distances (500 m or more).
The load is filled by the charger while unloading this truck works alone. These materials include coal, filler, sand, split rock, nickel, iron ore, and even trash.
A dump truck has a distinctive feature that it is equipped with a hydraulic auxiliary device that is installed under the body of the dump truck in a sleeping position with a hinged rear, the front part of the body that can be lifted allows the contents to carry the body of the truck on the tipper so that it can be easily lowered behind the truck at the place of delivery.
In the UK and Australia, the term applies only to construction and off-road works, and while on the road these vehicles are known as a tipper, dump truck (UK), and dump truck (Australia).
Types of Dump Trucks
1) Articulated dump truck
The articulated dump truck, commonly abbreviated as ADT, is a combination tractor-trailer, where the cab and dump body can move freely and flexibly when passing through wet and muddy terrain. This type of truck can also be used to transport loads on rough and uneven terrain.
Articulated dump trucks can also load more material over a longer distance. If the condition of the ground traversed by the excavated soil and the embankment is muddy, then the articulated dump truck needs to be combined again with a motor grader that speeds up cycle times.
The articulated dump truck has 6 characters as follows:
- Easy articulation of machine operation
- Oscillating tube and articulated hinge, allowing the dump truck to rotate 360o and ensuring that the six wheels remain in contact with the ground. This makes the truck more stable, ensuring safety and more efficient use of the engine.
- The articulated dump truck is made of a perfect and durable steel frame
- The robust dump truck system can carry larger loads.
- Automatic transmission
- High flotation of the tires facilitates the operation of the dump truck in various conditions.
The advantage of the articulated dump truck is that it can be transported on rough, slippery or inclined terrain, it can be said that ADT is superior in carrying capacity.
However, ADT has a drawback, namely that it cannot transport material with a capacity of more than 50 metric tons.
2) Rigid dump truck
Rigid dump truck is a type of dump truck based on the rigid motion system. The use of this type of dump truck is almost the same as that of the articulated dump truck.
This truck is suitable for transporting materials over medium to long distances (500 meters or more). This heavy equipment has a large workload, so the owner of the heavy equipment must maintain the highest availability of equipment.
Rigid dump trucks have a rigid frame that joins the cab and the body of the tipper so that the rigid dump truck cannot move freely and flexibly when operating in a harsh field, the weight of the load can make the frame rigid turn which can allow the dump truck to tip over. If this happens continuously, it can cause damage to the machine.
The advantages of rigid dump trucks are that they have a large capacity and outperform the articulated dump truck which can carry up to 400 tons.
Meanwhile, the disadvantage of the rigid dump truck is that it has a large body, so this heavy equipment must have a wide range of motion and inflexible movement.
3) Dump truck for mining
The quarry dump truck is a type of dump truck commonly used in mining areas that is used to transport mining products such as coal.
This truck has a very large load capacity, so maintenance is relatively expensive. Based on the motion system, the Quarry Dump Truck is rigid so the performance of this heavy equipment is the same as the Rigid Dump Truck, the difference is the function when used at the time of execution.
The advantage of this type of heavy equipment is that it can transport material fresh from the mining site with a large capacity. Meanwhile, the downsides of this machine are that it is inflexible and requires a large amount of space.
4) Standard dump truck
The standard dump truck is a truck that can be emptied without the need for handling. Dump trucks are commonly used to transport materials for construction purposes.
The standard dump truck is equipped with an open body that is operated with the help of a hydraulic system, the front part of the body can be raised, allowing the material to be transported to lower to the desired location.
The advantages of the standard dump truck are that it can be used to transport materials and requires less space to move like a rigid dump truck. The shorter wheelbase of the standard dump truck makes the dump truck more agile than the larger capacity semi-trailer dump truck.
While the shortcomings of the standard dump truck are that it is difficult to work on rough terrain like mud and wet and the capacity of this type of dump truck is small, unlike the rigid dump truck.
5) Transfer Dump truck
The transfer dump truck is a standard dump truck that can pull a separate trailer and can carry construction materials such as (gravel, sand, asphalt, etc.).
Usually, this type of dump truck has 2 tubs A and B. The second material is on the trailer (tub B), supported by electricity, air motor, or hydraulic line.
The material from tank B is transferred to an empty tank (tank A) in front of him as it is launched using small wheels that move like rails. This maximizes payload capacity without compromising the maneuverability of the standard dump truck.
Another configuration seen is called the Triple Transfer Train, which consists of bodies B and C.
This is very common on the highways of Nevada and Utah. Depending on the arrangement, the Triple Transfer Train can carry up to 129,000 kilograms (280,000 pounds) with special permits in certain US countries.
The advantages of transfer dump trucks are that they can carry loads with a large enough capacity and maximize the loading capacity.
Meanwhile, the drawback of the transfer dump truck is that it requires a large enough space due to the large dimensions of the transfer dump truck.
6) Side dump truck
A side dump truck is a type of dump truck that can dump its cargo to the side that works to transport materials for construction purposes. The side dump truck consists of a 3-axle traction tractor and a 2-axle semi-trailer.
This type of dump truck has a hydraulic ram that works to tilt the body of the dump truck and spill the material it carries to the right or left side of this dump truck.
In the condition that the unloading of the cargo takes place in a narrow and long place, the use of this type of truck is the right choice.
The advantage of the side dump truck is that it can go fast in transport or no-load condition. The capacity that this kind of dump truck can carry is large, so the side dump truck can carry heavier loads.
The side dump truck will not tip over when the loader dumps its load, which generally allows the dump truck to flip over as well. This type of truck can be used in long and narrow dumping conditions.
While the disadvantages of side dump trucks are that this type of dump truck has long dimensions and its length prevents the dump truck from moving and generally lacks flexibility.
7) Rear dump truck
The rear dump truck is a type of dump truck that is useful for transporting building materials whose material is removed by lifting the front of the tub.
Rear dump trucks are used to transport various types of materials. However, loose materials such as soil and dry sand are common materials that are transported in this type of dump truck.
Materials like rocks can damage the truck. So when moving, you need to be careful. The body capacity of this type of truck is 25-250 tons.
The advantages of the Rear Dump Truck are that it facilitates the work of dismantling materials, especially sand, to minimize the amount of human labor.
While the downside of the rear dump truck is that the capacity that this type of dump truck can carry is not as large as that of the rigid dump truck.
Parts of a Dump Truck
1) Dump body
5) Diesel engines
Be sure to use the type of dump truck that best meets the needs of the construction job in progress.