Principles of Construction Management – In order to carry out management, a manager must perform management functions at every level.
Within the management functions, there are organic functions that must be implemented and supporting functions that complement each other.
If the organic function is not performed properly, it is possible that the goal will fail. George R. Terry formulated these functions as POAC (Planning, Organizing, Actuating, and Controlling).
Planning is a process that systematically prepares activities to achieve specific goals and objectives. Activities are defined as activities that are carried out in the context of construction work, both those that are the responsibility of the person carrying out the work (contractor) and the supervisor (consultant). Contractors and consultants must have the right planning concept in place according to their respective tasks and responsibilities in order to achieve the goals.
In the planning process it is necessary to know the following things:
- Problems related to goals and available resources.
- How to achieve goals and objectives by paying attention to the resources available.
- The translation of plans into concrete action programs.
- Determining the amount of time that can be allocated to achieve the objectives and objectives.
Organizing (work organization) is intended as the regulation of the activity of a group of people under the direction of a group leader in an organizational forum. This organizational framework describes the structural and functional relationships that are required to channel responsibilities, resources, and data.
The organization has the following tasks in the management process:
- ensure good coordination.
- support their managers in mobilizing management functions.
- unite the thoughts of the smaller organizational units under his coordination.
In the organizing function, coordination is a mechanism for structural and functional relationships that must be carried out consistently. The coordination can take place through the following mechanisms:
- vertical coordination (describes the command function),
- horizontal coordination (describes interactions on one level); and
- diagonal coordination (description of interactions on different levels, but beyond the command function).
Vertical and hierarchical coordination
- Constructor: Coordination between the General Superintendant and the Material Superintendant or the civil engineer or the Equipment Superintendant.
- Field supervision team coordination between site engineer with quantity engineer or with quality engineer is a vertical and hierarchical coordination.
Horizontal and one-step coordination
- Execution of the construction work, coordination between the site manager and the civil engineer or the plant construction manager.
- Field supervision team, coordinating between quantity engineer or quality engineer is horizontal coordination and is one level.
The coordination between the General Superintendant and the Site Engineer is horizontal and one-step coordination, while the coordination between the Head of Construction and the General Superintendant or with the Site Engineer is vertical coordination.
Actuation is defined as a managerial function to induce people who are members of the organization to carry out the activities specified in the planning. In this phase the group leader’s ability to mobilize is required; Direct; motivate group members to jointly contribute to the success of project management in achieving the set goals.
The following are some of the successful “actuation methods” suggested by George R. Terry, namely:
- Appreciate someone, whatever the task, so that they feel that their presence in the group or organization becomes important.
- Instructions from a manager must take into account the individual differences of his employees so that they can be properly carried out by his employees.
- There must be clear, concise and easily understandable work guidelines for employees.
- Carry out the practice of participation in management to establish cohesion in the implementation of management so that each employee can function fully as part of the organization.
- Make an effort to understand workers’ rights, including welfare issues, in order to increase the employee’s sense of belonging to the job in which they participate.
- Managers need to be good listeners to properly understand what is behind employee complaints so that they can be considered in decision-making.
- A leader must avoid using arguments to justify his decisions because in general everyone doesn’t like reasons, especially when they are looked for to justify their decisions.
- Don’t do anything that conjures up other people’s feelings or other people’s emotions.
- Managers can use persuasion techniques by asking questions so that they are not pressured by their employees.
- Supervision is necessary to improve employee performance, but it must not interfere with employee creativity.
Controlling is an activity that ensures that the work has been carried out according to plan. In road or bridge project management, the consultant controls the work of the contractor by means of a monitoring contract, with the construction work being carried out by the contractor.
The general superintendent is obliged to assist the employees under his control, i. H. Construction management, quantity surveyor, material manager, civil engineer and equipment engineer to control the work carried out (in stages) to ensure that each staff has fulfilled their tasks in the corridor, quality assurance ”. Thus, the stages of target achievement can be fulfilled as planned.
This activity also applies to the internal activities of the supervisory consultant in the sense that external parties are responsible for monitoring contractors; the site engineer also controls the quantity engineer and the quality engineer internally.
Overall, this internal control can enhance the performance of the supervisory advisor to better monitor the work of the contractor.
The scope of control activities includes monitoring all aspects of the implementation of the plan, including:
- Product of labor, both qualitatively and quantitatively
- All resources used (personnel, money, equipment, materials)
- Procedure and functionality
- Technical guidelines made during the process of target achievement.
Controlling must be objective and able to determine facts about the conduct of the work in the field and the various factors that influence it. The reference for the assessment is to compare the plan and the implementation to understand the possibility of deviations.