A project is an activity that has a certain period of time with a limited allocation of resources, to carry out a task that has been outlined.
According to D.I Cleland and W.R. King (1987), the project is a combination of several resources, which are collected in a temporary organization to achieve a certain objective.
The activities or tasks carried out in the project are in the form of construction/repair of facilities (buildings, roads, bridges, dams, etc.) or they can also be in the form of research and development activities.
From the definition above, the project is an activity that is temporary (time-limited), non-repetitive, non-routine, has a start and end time, limited/determined resources, and is intended to achieve predetermined goals.
The definition of a project in this discussion is a situation in the sense of a construction project, that is, a project related to the construction (development) sector. From the definitions and limitations above, some of the project features can be described as follows.
- The project time is limited, which means that the time period, the start time (project start and end time (project end) are true.
- The result is non-repeating, which means that the product of a project is only one time, not a routine / repeated product (Manufacturing).
- It has different stages of activities, with a pattern at the beginning a little, growing more, decreasing and stopping.
- The intensity of the activities (stages, planning, design and implementation stages).
- There are many types of activities and they require different classifications of personnel.
- Site / project specific location, which means the project area and location has been determined, it cannot be anywhere.
- Project-specific specifications, that is, requirements related to materials, tools, labor, and implementation methods that have been determined and must comply with the procedures for these requirements.
In architecture and civil engineering, construction is a method of building or assembling infrastructure.
These projects are usually led by a project manager and supervised by a project architect, civil engineer, or site manager.
There are four main types of constructions, each with its own requirements and properties:
1. Residential Construction
The first type of construction project is a residential construction project, which involves the construction, repair, and remodeling of a structure for the purpose of housing people, and equipment.
Examples of residential/residential construction projects are apartments, terraced houses, condominiums, nursing homes, residential homes, etc.
Here, housing/settlement development projects (real estate) are distinguished from detailed construction projects based on the class of construction at the same time as the delivery of supporting infrastructure, which requires planning of the infrastructure of housing (transfusion network, water network, and other facilities).
These residential development projects range from very simple houses to luxury homes and flats.
In addition, garages and ancillary buildings such as warehouses are considered residential buildings.
The planning of residential construction projects is usually carried out by engineers and architects, and the construction itself is carried out by a construction company that hires subcontractors to carry out the mechanical, structural, and electrical work of the project.
However, for single-family homes, builders typically go through all phases of both design and construction.
Residential projects must comply with local rules and regulations of the building authority. Many new buildings prefer residential construction projects because of the easy entry into the real estate industry.
As such, it is a highly competitive market with high earnings potential and high risks.
Housing projects are always preferred because people can enjoy more privacy in housing projects.
2. Commercial Construction
This type of construction project covers the needs of commercial/institutional construction projects.
Building construction projects include office buildings, schools, shops, hospitals, residences, etc. In terms of cost and technology, there is low, medium, and high scale. In general, the planning of a construction project is more complete and detailed.
Specialized engineers and architects are usually used for this construction and the design of the building.
This segment has few competitors due to the complexity and high cost of commercial and institutional buildings and requires more commercial and institutional building skills compared to residential projects.
3. Industrial Construction
The third type is specialized industrial construction with structures that require special specifications and requirements such as oil refineries, heavy industry / basic industry, mining, nuclear, etc. Planning and implementation require precision and specific expertise/technology.
Usually, this type of construction is carried out by industrial companies or non-profit companies.
Examples of industrial building projects, for example, in the chemical industry can build oil refineries, and the power generation industry can build structures for nuclear power plants, and hydropower plants, solar power plants, oil refineries, and industries, which are examples of special industrial buildings.
This is a relatively small part of the construction industry. Although it is called “industrial building”, it is definitely interchangeable with “commercial building”. The main reason for this is that industrial projects are often very large and implemented on a large scale.
4. Heavy Construction
The fifth type is facilities and infrastructure projects, as well as heavy construction, which includes the construction and improvement of railways, communications, and roads, as well as railways within the city.
This type of construction is generally in the public interest and is often done by government agencies and large private companies.
Some examples of these civil engineering projects are tunnels, bridges, roads, transportation systems, drainage systems, and pipelines.
Heavy construction projects are usually projects that are not properly classified as roads or buildings.
Dam projects, sewage treatment plants, dredging projects, flood control, water treatment plants, and sewer systems are some examples of heavy construction.
5. Highway Construction
Highway construction projects include repairs, construction, and reconstruction of motorways, alleys, parking lots, runways, and toll roads. This segment includes all construction services related to road construction projects.
Construction projects are developed in line with the development of human life and technological advances.
The increasingly diverse fields of human life require the construction services industry to construct construction projects in accordance with the diversity of these fields.
Factory building construction projects are certainly different from school buildings. Dam, tunnel, highway, bridge, and other civil engineering projects require certain specifications, experience, and technology, which are certainly different from real estate projects.
It is quite difficult to categorize project types into detailed and unambiguous categories/types, but in general, (outline) construction project classifications/types can be divided.